The effect of a placebo on changing behavior or how one feels is usually temporary.
June 22, 2020
June 22, 2020


memory of getting knocked down by a wave at Newport Beach could be based on
what my parents told me later, not
on my own recollection.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines
does this example

a. define your terms

b. avoid emotional reasoning

c. consider other interpretations

d. don’t oversimplify

22. Randy meets a Californian who grows his own
vegetables and refuses to eat nonorganic food. Randy concludes that Californians are overzealous about
nutrition. This type of error illustrates the importance of which critical
thinking guideline?

a. don’t oversimplify

b. tolerate uncertainty

c. avoid emotional reasoning

d. examine the evidence

23. “I
may never know for sure whether some of my childhood memories are real or
accurate.” Which of the following
critical thinking guidelines does this example illustrate?

a. avoid emotional reasoning

b. don’t oversimplify

c. tolerate uncertainty

d. ask questions and be willing to wonder

24. In
their research studies, contemporary psychologists rely heavily upon:

a. empirical evidence.

b. anecdotes from personal experience.

c. individual case descriptions.

d. phrenology.

25. In
contrast to modern psychologists, ancient scholars explored human nature
primarily through:

a. empirical evidence.

b. experimentation.

c. trained introspection.

d. insights inferred from anecdotes.

26. Unlike
modern psychologists, great thinkers of the past:

a. relied primarily on observations based on
anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases.

b. wanted to describe, predict, understand,
and modify behavior.

c. relied heavily on empirical evidence.

d. wanted to know what motivated people’s

27. A
difference between the great thinkers of history and today’s psychologists is

a. modern psychologists want to describe,
predict, understand, and modify behavior.

b. modern psychologists rely heavily on
empirical evidence.

c. modern psychologists wonder whether emotion
controls us or is something we can control.

d. modern psychologists want to know how
people take in information through their senses and use that information to solve problems.

28. A
manuscript on human nature is discovered and scientists confirm that it is the
work of an ancient scholar. In this
manuscript, human nature is most likely explored through:

a. empirical evidence.

b. experimentation.

c. trained introspection.

d. insights inferred from anecdotes.

29. The
formal discipline of psychology, as we know it today, began:

a. in Ancient Greece.

b. in the Middle Ages.

c. in the 1600s.

d. in the 1800s.

30. _______________
had inferred that the brain is the ultimate source of all pleasures and sorrows
long before it was
verified, and he is now known as the father of modern medicine.

a. Hippocrates

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. Sigmund Freud

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