Planned Change
October 30, 2018
Develop an appreciation for informatics, basic skills and knowledge required in practice settings
October 30, 2018

PICO Research Paper

Research Paper instructions
Select a Topic (Title of Paper)


Develop PICO and Three SSRE Questions


Choose a peer-reviewed journal appropriate for your topic


Use APA format based on the guidelines of the journal


State the Research Question or Purpose emphasizing the GAP in knowledge

For example, “… this research review (your topic) provides evidence to guide decision making for policy formation, clinical practice, and research.”
Methods – Survey the Literature using comprehensive electronic search strategies (report in Methods section)


Identify databases accessed, e.g.,, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychLIT, etc.)


State key words used in search


Develop Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria


Using the inclusion/exclusion criteria, review abstracts or full paper for appropriateness for your research question or purpose.


State inclusive years of search, e.g., 2003-2013.


Either in text or diagram indicates the number of articles retrieved and the number excluded and your final sample size.


The final sample size = the number of research articles critiqued and included in your table of evidence.


You must obtain a minimum of 5 research articles/person.


You may have additional articles that provide background information.

III.  Critique
Critique each articleusing specific criteria, e.g., CASP tools or internal/external validity tool.


Table of Evidence (TOE)


Construct a table of evidence consisting of “… existing research on (your topic) for period (your dates).”


Identify categories for your TOE based on the following: Citation, Sample, Design, Theoretical or Conceptual Framework, Outcomes/Results, Level of Evidence (see Polit and Beck, p. 28)


Evaluate the quality of research article – see below


Use a simplified qualitative approach and organize the research articles according to identified themes


Using the clearly identified themes, synthesize the Outcomes/ Results of your sample


Do not write about each article separately.


Identify common elements in the articles under each theme. Write about similarities among the studies, e.g., “… of the four studies reviewed in this section, three supported the need for written guidelines for sexual policies for persons with SPMI.  The studies were quasi-experimental and non-experimental with generally consistent findings”.


Implications – policy formation, clinical practice, and research


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