1. Describe the features of the Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome
(ARDS), including how the severity of ARDS is incorporated into this definition.
2. Answer all parts of this question:
a) State the most common cause for brown coloured mucous membranes.
b) List three (3) disease processes which can cause this abnormality, including
examples where appropriate. (4 marks)
c) Explain how this condition can be quantified. (1 mark)
3. Using figures, explain the Bohr and Haldane effects. Include in your answer
information about the chloride shift. (6 marks)
4. Describe the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions and explain their pathophysiologic
significance. (6 marks)
5. Answer all parts of this question:
a) Define and describe a bacterial biofilm. (2 marks)
b) Give four (4) examples of common locations and situations where biofilms may
develop and become problematic in small animal patients. (2 marks)
c) List two (2) management strategies to reduce the clinical impact of bacterial
biofilms. (2 marks)
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Veterinary Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Paper 1 Page 7 of 7
© 2016 The Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists ABN 00 50 000894 208
6. How is dead space ventilation subdivided/classified? Provide a brief explanation of
each type of dead space. With respect to ventilation, define and differentiate different
classification or types of dead space. (6 marks)
7. Outline how burns are classified based on the ‘depth of tissue destruction’ scheme.
Include layers involved, wound characteristics and details of healing. (6 marks)
8. Answer all parts of this question:
a) Define abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). (2 marks)
b) Differentiate among primary, secondary and tertiary ACS using examples.
c) Give one (1) example of a method or technique that you could use to quantify
the intra-abdominal pressure in a veterinary ICU patient. (1 mark)
9. Compare and contrast the toxic syndromes of carbamates and organophosphates with
specific focus on which clinical signs are attributable to toxin binding at which
receptor sites. (6 marks)
10. Answer both parts of this question:
a) Define ScvO2, explain its biological significance and state how it is measured.
b) Identify the two (2) broad categories by which ScvO2 can be decreased and
name two (2) examples within each category. (3 marks)
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